The Basics of Integrated Circuitry

What do microchips or chips in general all have? They feature an integrated circuit, which is essentially a semiconductor wafer on which millions of very tiny capacitors, transistors and resistors are fabricated.  According to phototooling toolbox specialists, an integrated circuit can function as a microprocessor,  RAM or random access memory, amplifier, counter, timer and as an oscillator. Integrated circuits are dubbed either as digital or analog depending on its inherent application.

Major Benefits Offered

Small Size & Weight – They are several thousand times smaller than discrete circuits, which mean that fabrication of many circuit elements in a single semiconductor material is possible.  In line with their tiny size is the small weight they possess owing to their miniature nature.

Low Cost – Due to the creation of hundreds of similar circuits on a tiny semiconductor wafer, low cost to produce is achieved. Mass production of integrated circuits made it as cheap as an individual transistor.

Reliability – According to precision photolithography experts, integrated circuits are much more reliable and require fewer need for interconnections because it negated the need to have soldered joints.

Low Power – Due to their diminutive size they require less power to operate which in turn creates more energy reserves in the device.

Easily Replaceable – Due to their low cost in production it is more convenient to replace rather than repair integrated circuits.

High Operating Speed- is achieved due to the disappearance of any parasitic capacitance effect.

Better Functional Performance – current technology allows for the creation of more sophisticated integrated circuitry to achieve better performance and speed. They also work quite well at extreme temperature conditions.


In an integrated circuit the different components that form part of the small semiconductor chip as well as the individual components cannot simply be replaced or removed for whatever reason. If any part of the integrated circuit fails for some reason, the entire integrated circuit must be replaced.  Its diminutiveness also limits its power rating because it is not physically possible to create high power circuits that are more than 10 watts.

Regardless of its limitations one can see here that integrated circuits are an essential part of any electronic device and its evolution through the years is shown by the size, computing power and battery efficiency of our modern electronic devices.